On-demand Online Courses (Home Studies)

The Luria Neuroscience Institute is pleased to introduce home studies (on-demand online courses) about the brain and the mind. The participants will be able to watch the courses online at their own pace and to receive a Continuing Education certificate after completing a post-test.

The home studies are presented by Elkhonon Goldberg, Ph.D., ABPP., a clinical neuropsychologist and cognitive neuroscientist, and Diplomate of The American Board of Professional Psychology in Clinical Neuropsychology. His critically acclaimed and bestselling books have been translated into 24 languages.

Each course takes 3 hours and 3 CE Credits will be awarded by CE credit sponsor R. Cassidy Seminars.
R. Cassidy Seminars are CE Sponsors for the American Psychological Association and recognized by the New York State Education Department as an approved provider of continuing education for psychologists, psychoanalysts, social workers, NY-LMHCs, NY-LMFTs and creative arts therapists (see below).
The courses are intended for professionals concerned with mental health and with brain and brain disorders.
The courses content level: Intermediate.
There is no conflict of interest or commercial support for this program.

Fee:
$150 for a three-hour course. There is an extra $20 fee for the Online Test charged directly by the R. Cassidy Seminars. There is no additional charge for the CEs certificate.

Format:
online video course
 

 

Executive Functions and the Frontal Lobes

Executive functions represent the highest level of cognitive control and involve goal formation, planning, mental flexibility, impulse control, working memory. Executive functions are mediated by the prefrontal cortex and related structures. In this webinar we will examine their cognitive composition, neural mechanisms, changes throughout the lifespan, and gender differences. We will also examine how executive functions become impaired in a wide range of neurological, neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurogeriatric disorders.

Topics to be covered:
Executive functions and frontal-lobe functions: are they the same?
Components of executive functions (planning, impulse control, working memory, and others).
Novel approaches to understanding the frontal-lobe functions.
Frontal lobes and large-scale networks (Central Executive, Default Mode, and others).
Executive functions and laterality.
Executive functions and sex differences.
Regulation of emotions: frontal lobes and amygdala.
Executive functions and intelligence.
Executive functions in development and aging.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. List brain mechanisms of executive functions: Prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, related structures and their subdivisions.
  2. Explain the process and brain mechanisms of decision-making: The frontal lobes and “executive functions”.
  3. Explain the brain mechanisms of emotions: Amygdala and the frontal lobes.
  4. Describe executive functions in normal development and aging.

 

Executive Dysfunction in Brain Disorders

Executive functions are the most fragile of all cognitive functions. They are affected in a wide range of neurological, psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurogeriatric disorders. In this webinar we will examine how executive functions are affected in various dementias (including Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy body dementia, and Frontotemporal dementia); traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular disease, neuropsychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and affective disorders), infectious encephalopathies, seizure disorders, and other clinical conditions.

Topics to be covered:
Executive dysfunction in dementias (Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy body dementia, Fronto-temporal dementia).
Executive dysfunction in traumatic brain injury (reticulo-frontal disconnection syndrome).
Executive dysfunction in cerebrovascular disorders (CVA, aneurysms).
Executive dysfunction in neurodevelopmental disorders (ADHD, Tourette’s Syndrome).
Executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, affective disorders).
Executive dysfunction in movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease).
Executive dysfunction in infectious encephalopathies (neuro-COVID and others).
Executive dysfunction and seizure disorders.
Executive dysfunction and laterality.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Describe executive dysfunction in neurodevelopmental disorders. Executive dysfunction and ADHD – same or different? Where do they overlap and where do they diverge?
  2. Describe executive dysfunction in dementias: Alzheimer’s, Lewy body, Fronto-temporal and others.
  3. Describe executive dysfunction in Traumatic Brain Injury: “mild” TBI is not so mild.
  4. Describe executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, affective disorders, Tourette’s syndrome and OCD.

 

Dementias

Dementias are among the most prevalent neurocognitive disorders presenting a unique set of clinical and societal challenges. In this webinar we will review several major types of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy body dementia and its relationship to Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and others. For each of these disorders we will discuss the underlying neurobiology, epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis, and cognitive characteristics. We will also discuss cognitive aging, as well as both protective and risk factors associated with it.

Topics to be covered:
Epidemiology and demographics of dementias.
Alzheimer’s disease: neurobiology, epidemiology, natural history, neurocognitive characteristics, and diagnosis. Lewy body dementia and Parkinson’s disease: neurobiology, epidemiology, natural history, neurocognitive characteristics, and diagnosis.
Fronto-temporal dementia: neurobiology, epidemiology, natural history, neurocognitive characteristics, and diagnosis. Vascular dementia: neurobiology, epidemiology, natural history, neurocognitive characteristics, and diagnosis.
Korsakoff’s syndrome: neurobiology, epidemiology, natural history, neurocognitive characteristics, and diagnosis. Mixed dementias: neurobiology, epidemiology, natural history, neurocognitive characteristics, and diagnosis.
Mild Cognitive Impairment and its relationship to dementias. Diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and misdiagnosis.
Memory impairment in dementias and the fallacy of old diagnostic criteria. Executive impairment in dementias: still underrecognized.
Arousal impairment in dementias. Changes in the epidemiology of dementias and possible causes behind them. Cognitive aging: its characteristics, protective factors, and risk factors. Cognitive enhancement and surrounding controversies.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Learn about the biological characteristics of major dementias.
  2. Learn about cognitive characteristics of major dementias.
  3. Learn about the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementias.
  4. Learn about factors influencing the course of cognitive aging.

 

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a highly prevalent condition sometimes referred to as a “silent epidemic.” In this webinar we will review various types of TBI (closed, open, blast); various causes and unique characteristics of motor vehicle accidents, workplace-related, military and sports TBI; various mechanisms of TBI (diffuse axonal injury, contre-coup, neurometabolic cascade); cognitive characteristics (particularly executive and memory impairment); recovery from TBI and long-term outcomes; and forensic issues commonly associated with TBI.

Topics to be covered:
Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Types of traumatic brain injury (TBI): closed, open (penetrating and perforating), blast. Severity and criteria of traumatic brain injury (TBI): mild, moderate, severe.
Causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Mechanisms of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Focal vs. diffuse components of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroanatomical structures most vulnerable in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Natural course of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the multiple forms it may take.
Secondary complications in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cognitive consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Executive deficit in traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Memory impairment in traumatic brain injury (TBI): anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in sports and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.
Military traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forensic issues in traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Learn about the types of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  2. Learn about the mechanisms of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  3. Learn about the multiple possible courses of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  4. Learn about the cognitive characteristics of traumatic brain injury (TBI).

 

Creativity and Cognition

Creativity is a complex construct involving multiple components. We will discuss the various components of creativity. Creativity is not a monolithic trait; there are many paths to creativity. Even the most innovative creative individual ahead of his or her society is a product of that society. We will discuss the relationship between individual creativity, cognition, and the host culture. In order to be recognized by society as creative, a scientific or artistic product has to be novel. But novelty alone is not sufficient; the product must also be relevant. We will discuss the relationship between creativity, novelty, and salience. The relationship between creativity and intelligence has intrigued psychologists for decades. We will discuss this relationship, as well as the limitations of current approaches – intelligence defined as IQ and creativity as performance on “divergent thinking” tests. The connection between creativity and psychopathology has intrigued scientists, clinicians, and the general public for years. We will discuss the evidence for and against this relationship, as well as the possible brain mechanisms behind it. Can creativity be enhanced? We will discuss some of the programs designed to enhance creativity, or at least it components and prerequisites. Is creativity is the unique attribute of human cognition? This point of view may flatter our feeling of exceptionalism but rudimentary creativity may be present already in other species. We will review the evidence.

Topics to be covered:
Creativity and society. Innovator vs consumer.
Creativity deconstructed. Building blocks of creativity.
Innovation, salience, and how they interact in the creative process.
Creativity and intelligence. Are they linked and when do they become uncoupled?
Creativity and psychopathology: Affective disorders, FTD, and other conditions.
Enhancing creativity? Creativity as the new focus of educational process.
Evolutionary roots of creativity. Defining and studying creativity in other species. Creativity and artificial intelligence.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Describe the main components of the creative process.
  2. Describe the relationship between individual creativity and culture.
  3. Describe the relationship between creativity and intelligence.
  4. Describe the evolutionary roots of creativity.

 

Creativity and the Brain

Numerous claims have been made in the scientific and popular literature, linking creativity to specific brain structures. Which among these claims are accurate and which are tabloid oversimplifications? The multicomponential nature of creativity implies that multiple brain structures are involved. The right hemisphere has a preferential relationship to novelty-seeking. We will discuss the evidence for, and the mechanisms of this relationship. The prefrontal cortex is critical for decision making and for determining what is important. We will discuss the mechanisms of how this happens. Even the most original innovation is built on previously accumulated knowledge and concepts. The left hemisphere is particularly important as the “repository” of such knowledge. What is the relationship between the deliberate and effortful vs. the unconscious and spontaneous? These two complementary components of the creative process may be related to the hyperfrontal vs. hypofrontal brain states. We will discuss this relationship. Is there a genetic basis for creativity? This question is closely linked to another one: the genetic basis of intelligence. We will discuss both questions. The age of a solitary genius is mostly over. Increasingly the creative process is a team process both in science, industry, and the arts. We will discuss the nascent research into group creativity.

Topics to be covered:
Facts and fads of creativity. No single locus in the brain.
Creativity, novelty, and the right hemisphere.
Salience, decision making, and the frontal lobes.
“Standing on the shoulders of giants” and the left hemisphere.
Perspiration and inspiration: hyperfrontality and hypofrontality.
Creativity and the genes: candidate genes and whole genome.
Group creativity: How different brains can work better together.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Describe the relationship between novelty seeking, creativity, and the right hemisphere.
  2. Describe the relationship between the decision making, creativity, and the frontal lobes.
  3. Describe the concepts of hyperfrontality and hypofrontality in innovation and creativity.
  4. Describe the evidence for and against genetic basis of creativity and intelligence.

 

Laterality and Functional Organization of the Brain

Laterality is a fundamental feature of brain organization. In this webinar we will discuss why the traditional understanding of hemispheric specialization fails to capture all its essential aspects, and will introduce a new understanding of brain laterality which permits a broader evolutionary perspective. We will review the neuroanatomical and biochemical differences between the two hemispheres; their respective (and changing) roles in cognition across the lifespan; examine gender and handedness differences in laterality; as well as the relationship between hemispheric specialization and emotions. We will also review the nature of hemispheric specialization across species throughout evolution.

Topics to be covered:
Where the traditional notions of hemispheric specialization got it wrong.
Functional laterality and brain anatomy. Laterality throughout evolution.
Novel approaches to hemispheric specialization.
How the two hemispheres develop and age.
Laterality and gender and handedness differences.
Laterality and regulation of emotions.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Describe biological differences between the cerebral hemispheres: morphology, connectivity, and biochemistry.
  2. Describe sex differences in hemispheric specialization: How is hemispheric laterality different in females and males.
  3. Explain the limitations of the traditional paradigm: Left-hemispheric language and right-hemispheric spatial processing? Not so simple.
  4. Explain the roles of the two hemispheres in learning: the role of the right hemisphere in dealing with cognitive novelty and of the left hemisphere in maintaining well-formed knowledge.

 

Laterality and Brain Dysfunction

A number of neurocognitive disorders impact the two cerebral hemispheres to unequal degrees. In this webinar we will review several such disorders from the standpoint of hemispheric specialization. They will include neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. dyslexias, non-verbal learning disabilities); dementias (e.g. frontotemporal dementia); striatal disorders (e.g. Parkinson’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome); neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia); and certain cerebrovascular disorders. We will also discuss why certain forms of diffuse brain dysfunction may masquerade as lateralized brain disease.

Topics to be covered:
Laterality and learning disabilities (dyslexias vs NVLD).
Laterality and dementias: Is fronto-temporal dementia lateralized?
Laterality and striatal disorders (Parkinson’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome).
Major cerebrovascular disorders and cerebral hemispheres.
Laterality and neuropsychiatric disorders: Schizophrenia and the left hemisphere.
Laterality and differential functional breakdown threshold.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Describe left hemispheric dysfunction in schizophrenia.
  2. Describe left hemispheric dysfunction in fronto-temporal dementia.
  3. Describe left hemineglect and right-hemispheric damage.
  4. Describe pseudodepression and bell indifference in lateralized frontal CVA.

 

ADHD and Tourette: A new look at an old quandary

The ADHD diagnosis has acquired the status of a fad and is often given too casually and inclusively. Conflation between two distinct classes of clinical phenomena, hyperactivity and exploratory behavior, is a common source of ADHD overdiagnosis. Inspired by early insights by Oliver Sacks, we examine the relationship between frontal-lobe syndromes, Tourette syndrome, and Parkinson’s disease. This synthesis leads to a new understanding of Tourette syndrome and helps identify its distinct subtypes. These subtypes are caused, respectively, by predominant dysregulation in the left vs right fronto-striatal systems, and result in the preponderance of tics vs excessive exploratory behaviors. We examine the difference between hyperactivity and excessive exploratory behavior, and the potential for diagnostic confusion between ADHD and Tourette if this difference is ignored.

Topics to be covered:
Overdiagnosis of ADHD. A source of overdiagnosis: conflation of hyperactivity and exploratory behavior. What is the difference?
Are the diagnostic criteria for ADHD too broad? Duality of symptoms in Tourette syndrome: tics vs exploratory behavior.
Are the diagnostic criteria for Tourette too narrow? The triple-decker: Frontal lesions, Tourette syndrome, and Parkinson’s disease.
Introducing “hemi-Tourette” subtypes.
Clinical features of “hemi-Tourette” subtypes.
Clearing up the diagnostic confusion between Tourette and ADHD.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Explain the relationship between Tourette and ADHD diagnoses.
  2. Describe the concept of “excessive exploratory behavior” and how it is different from hyperactivity.
  3. Explain the role of fronto-striatal interaction breakdown in Tourette syndrome.
  4. Summarize the concept of “hemi-Tourette” syndrome variants.

 

How the Brain Deals with Novelty and Uncertainty

Fully deterministic, fixed situations exist only in psychology experiments. By contrast, real life is full of novel challenges and uncertainties. Furthermore, complex systems, both biological and artificial, must have the ability to acquire new information without degrading previously acquired information. In this webinar we will discuss how evolution “solved” these challenges by distributing the responsibilities between the two hemispheres: the right hemisphere is more adept at dealing with novel, ambiguous situations; and the left hemisphere at preserving well established knowledge and cognitive routines. We will review the developmental and neuroimaging evidence for this broad functional distinction, its neural mechanisms, and its evolutionary history in primates, dolphins, birds, and even in invertebrate species. We will also examine how this new understanding of hemispheric specialization sheds new light on certain neurological disorders.

Topics to be covered:
What is wrong with the classic view of hemispheric specialization.
Morphological, cellular, and biochemical asymmetries in the brain.
Novelty vs familiarity is a fundamental cognitive distinction throughout evolution and in human development.
Cognitive novelty and the right hemisphere.
Cognitive routines and the left hemisphere.
Functional lateralization in primates, dolphins, birds, and bees.
Neural mechanisms behind the novelty-routinization distinction.
Aberrant laterality and its clinical manifestations.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Describe the morphological, cellular, and biochemical differences between the two hemispheres.
  2. Explain the distinction between cognitive novelty and cognitive routines.
  3. Conceptualize the functional differences between the right and left hemisphere.
  4. Summarize the evolutionary history of hemispheric specialization.

 

COVID-19 and Brain Dysfunction: Evolving Understanding

Knowledge about the impact of COVID-19 on the brain is rapidly accumulating and this is reflected in the increasing use of the term “neuro-COVID.” In this webinar, we review the expanding understanding of the multiple ways in which COVID-19 affects the human brain, discuss the likelihood of long-term and very long-term sequelae of neuro-COVID, and their implications for cognitive functions. We discuss the international effort currently underway to meet the long-term challenges of neuro-COVID and the potential role of neuropsychology in addressing them.

Topics to be covered:
COVID-19 pandemic and the brain.
Brain as the target of COVID-19.
Direct vs indirect mechanisms of brain damage in COVID-19.
Primary mechanisms of brain infection: transsynaptic vs hematogenous.
Mechanisms of infection: the role of ACE2 receptor.
COVID-19 and immune response.
Clinical neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19.
Introducing “Neuro-COVID”.
Long-term sequelae of Neuro-COVID.
Other coronaviruses and the brain: SARS, MERS.
Other viruses and the brain: HIV, and HSV.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Explain the meaning of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2.
  2. Identify the COVID-19 impact on the brain.
  3. Explain neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19.
  4. Describe the neurological manifestations of other viral encephalopathies: SARS, MERS, HIV, and HSV.

 

NEUROCOVID-19: Cognitive, Psychiatric, and Psychological Manifestations

COVID-19 can affect the brain of infected individuals, which may result in a wide range of neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. It can also have a profound psychological and psychiatric impact on the general population. In this webinar we will further discuss the concept of “neuro-COVID” and examine the expanding knowledge of its impact on specific brain systems. We will examine the causal role of neuro-COVID in dementia and delirium; in executive deficit, memory impairment and other specific cognitive impairments; in psychosis and psychiatric and psychological disorders; and its pediatric manifestations. We will also review the emerging therapeutic approaches, global research and clinical initiatives, and how one can participate in them.

Topics to be covered:
COVID-19 pandemic and the brain: a brief recap.
The impact of neuro-COVID on the frontal lobes, temporal lobes, brainstem, and other structures.
Specific types of cognitive impairment caused by neuro-COVID: executive deficit, amnestic syndromes, and others.
Delirium and dementia in neuro-COVID. Psychiatric manifestations of neuro-COVID.
Psychosis in neuro-COVID.
Neuro-COVID in children.
Emerging therapeutic approaches.
Global initiatives.

Learning Objectives. This course is designed to help you:

  1. Describe the COVID-19 impact on specific brain structures.
  2. Identify specific neurocognitive manifestations of COVID-19.
  3. Explain specific neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19.

 

Continuing Education

Cosponsored by R. Cassidy Seminars, P.O. Box 14473, Santa Rosa, CA 95402

Instructor and His/Her Credentials
See under contributors.

Satisfactory Completion
Live events:
Participants must have paid tuition fee, signed in, attended the entire seminar and completed an evaluation in order to receive a certificate. Failure to sign in will result in forfeiture of credit for the entire course. No exceptions will be made. Partial credit is not available.
Pre-recorded on-demand courses:
Participants must Log-in and Log-out, watch the entire webinar, complete a post-test with a passing grade of 75%, and complete the course evaluation in order to receive a Certificate for CE credit.

Psychologists
R. Cassidy Seminars is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. R. Cassidy Seminars maintains responsibility for this program and its content. 3 CE clock hours self-study.
NY: R. Cassidy Seminars is recognized by the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Psychology as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed psychologists #PSY-0018. 3 clock hours self-study.

Psychoanalysts
NY: R. Cassidy Seminars is recognized by the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed psychoanalysts. #P-0005. (3) clock hours self-study.

Social Workers
CA and Other States: Most states accept continuing education courses offered by approved providers with national providerships or will accept the approvals of other state licensing boards of the same license type. Others, either do not require pre-approval of courses, or will allow licensees to retroactively file for course approval themselves. R. Cassidy Seminars is an approved provider with two national providerships, as well as holding many individual state license type approvals. Check with your board to obtain a final ruling.
IL-SWs: Illinois Dept of Professional Regulation, Approved Continuing Education Sponsor, #159.000782. (3) clock hours self-study.
NY: R. Cassidy Seminars is recognized by the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Social Work as an approved provider (#0006) of continuing education for licensed social workers. This program is approved for 3 contact hours self-study.
OH: Provider approved by the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker and Marriage and Family Therapist Board for (3) clock hours self-study, #RCST110701

Counselors/Marriage and Family Therapists
CA and Other States: Most states accept continuing education courses offered by approved providers with national providerships or will accept the approvals of other state licensing boards of the same license type. Others, either do not require pre-approval of courses, or will allow licensees to retroactively file for course approval themselves. R. Cassidy Seminars is an approved provider with two national providerships, as well as holding many individual state license type approvals. Check with your board to obtain a final ruling.
IL-MFTs: Illinois Dept of Professional Regulation, Approved Continuing Education Sponsor, #168-000141. (3) clock hours self-study.
NY-LMHCs: R. Cassidy Seminars is recognized by the New York State Education Department’s State Board of Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors. #MHC-0015. (3) clock hours self-study.
NY-LMFTs: R. Cassidy Seminars is recognized by the New York State Education Department’s State Board of Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed marriage and family therapists. #MFT-0011. (3) clock hours self-study.
OH: Provider approved by the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker and Marriage and Family Therapist Board for (3) clock hours self-study, #RCST110701
TX: Approved CE Sponsor through the Texas State Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists. Provider #151 3 CE clock hours self-study.

Creative Arts Therapists
NY: R. Cassidy Seminars is recognized by the New York State Education Department’s State Board of Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed creative arts therapists, #CAT-0005. (3) contact hours self-study.

Chemical Dependency Counselors
CA: Provider approved by CCAPP, Provider #4N-00-434-0222 for (3) CEHs. CCAPP is an ICRC member which has reciprocity with most ICRC member states.
TX: Provider approved by the TCBAP Standards Committee, Provider No. 1749-06, (3) clock hours self-study. Expires 3/31/2021. Complaints about provider or workshop content may be directed to the TCBAP Standards Committee, 1005 Congress Avenue, Ste. 460, Austin, Texas 78701, Fax Number (512) 476-7297.

Educators
TX: R. Cassidy Seminars is an approved provider with the Texas Education Agency CPE# 501456. This course is (3) CE hours self-study.

Nurses – Some Nursing Boards are reciprocal with other states – check your board to confirm
CA: Provider approved by the CA Board of Registered Nursing, Provider #CeP12224, for (3) contact hours self-study.

Disability Access – If you require ADA accommodations please contact our office 30 days or more before the event. We cannot ensure accommodations without adequate prior notification.

Grievances
If a participant is not satisfied with the program and explains why, a full refund will be issued upon request made within 15 days of registration. Please contact us at 800-906-5866 or info@lninstitute.org.

Disclosure
There is no conflict of interest or commercial support for this program

Please Note: Licensing Boards change regulations often and while we attempt to stay abreast of their most recent changes, if you have questions or concerns about this course meeting your specific board’s approval, we recommend you contact your board directly to obtain a ruling.